Antibiotic Assays

A brief history of the antibiotic assay

The quantitative use of zones of agar made inhibitory to the growth of one microorganisms by diffusing substances produced by another organism was in use at least as early as 1885 (Analytical Microbiology, Kavanagh, 1963). The first official assays of penicillin were carried out in 1943. Publication of the theoretical aspects involved was published by Cooper and Woodman in 1946 in Pathological Bacteriology. The antibiotic assay used by pharmaceutical companies is primarily the agar plate diffusion assay. Some products that are a mixture of polymers may have a specific monograph stating that they must be assayed by a turbidimetric method. Such an example is Gramicidin. Continue reading

Viable Environmental Monitoring

What Is Viable Environmental Monitoring (VEM)?

Viable Environmental Monitoring (VEM) is the monitoring of factors within a production environment that may have an impact on the quality of goods produced within the environment. Typically this is any physical object than could support or introduce microbial contamination to a manufacturing environment: air, gases, surfaces (both on introduced objects and within the production room), liquids and people.  This discussion does not extend to Environmental Monitoring such as particle counting, temperature, pressure differentials, etc. Continue reading